Tel Aviv, 1933: Members of Betar, the Revisionist Zionist youth movement, march through the streets of Tel Aviv in clean, pressed, brown uniforms, performing militaristic drills to the jeers of socialists. In the minds of the Labour Zionists the uniforms, the emphasis on combat, and, above all, an ideology emphasizing force and strength pointed in one direction – fascism. Yet, when members of Betar travelled to Jewish communities throughout Europe at the end of 1935, they prompted a very different reaction. Riding across Europe on motorcycles and wearing leather jackets, these tough Jews, rather than the socialists, were the true avant-garde.
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