Bosnia-Hercegovina, like the rest of the former Yugoslavian republics, has an
almost impenetrable history to outsiders and non-experts. A contentious mix of
political ideologies, ethnicities and religious beliefs – including nationalism and
Communism, Serb and Croat, Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Muslim – Bosnia-
Hercegovina has experienced a variety of social and military conflicts. The twentieth
century was particularly cruel as evidenced by the annexation by Austria-Hungary
in 1908, invasion by Nazi Germany in 1941, and again by Serbia in 1992.
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