[EVENTS] A Dissent Panel on the Elections, and the Irving Howe Memorial Lecture

This Saturday, November 17, Dissent is hosting an open forum on the U.S. elections. Historians Michael Kazin, David Greenberg, and Kim Phillips-Fein will talk about current trends in American politics—how we got here, and where we’re headed.

Michael Kazin is the co-editor of Dissent, the author of American Dreamers: How the Left Changed a Nation, and a professor of history at Georgetown University.

David Greenberg is associate professor of history and of journalism & media studies at Rutgers University. He is currently working on a book about the history of presidential “spin.”

Kim Phillips-Fein is a historian at New York University and the author of Invisible Hands: The Making of the Conservative Movement from the New Deal to Reagan.

This Saturday, November 17, at 1:30 p.m.
Judson Memorial Church
239 Thompson Street, New York, NY

Email editors [at] dissentmagazine [dot] org to RSVP.

How Could the Holocaust Have Happened? The 17th Annual Irving Howe Memorial Lecture

John the CUNY Center for the Humanities and acclaimed historian Timothy Snyder (author, most recently, of Bloodlands) for a lecture that will seek to provide a structural explanation of the Nazi attempt to physically exterminate European Jewry, and contemplate its implications for public policy in the twenty-first century.

Tuesday, November 13 at 7:00 p.m.
CUNY Graduate Center
365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY
The Skylight Room (9100)
Free and open to the public.

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The Kurds

[W]hen we refer to all Kurdish fighters synonymously, we simply blur the fact that they have very different politics. . . right now, yes, the people are facing the Islamic State threat, so it’s very important to have a unified focus. But the truth is, ideologically and politically these are very, very different systems. Actually almost opposite to each other. —Dilar Dirik, “Rojava vs. the World,” February 2015

The Kurds, who share ethnic and cultural similarities with Iranians and are mostly Muslim by religion (largely Sunni but with many minorities), have long struggled for self-determination. After World War I, their lands were divided up between Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Turkey. In Iran, though there have been small separatist movements, Kurds are mostly subjected to the same repressive treatment as everyone else (though they also face Persian and Shi’ite chauvinism, and a number of Kurdish political prisoners were recently executed). The situation is worse in Iraq, Syria, and Turkey, where the Kurds are a minority people subjected to ethnically targeted violations of human rights.  

Iraq: In 1986–89, Saddam Hussein conducted a genocidal campaign in which tens of thousands were murdered and thousands of Kurdish villages destroyed, including by bombing and chemical warfare. After the first Gulf War, the UN sought to establish a safe haven in parts of Kurdistan, and the United States and UK set up a no-fly zone. In 2003, the Kurdish peshmerga sided with the U.S.-led coalition against Saddam Hussein. In 2005, after a long struggle with Baghdad, the Iraqi Kurds won constitutional recognition of their autonomous region, and the Kurdistan Regional Government has since signed oil contracts with a number of Western oil companies as well as with Turkey. Iraqi Kurdistan has two main political parties, the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK), both clan-based and patriarchal.

Turkey: For much of its modern history, Turkey has pursued a policy of forced assimilation towards its minority peoples; this policy is particularly stringent in the case of the Kurds—until recently referred to as the “mountain Turks”—who make up 20 percent of the total population. The policy has included forced population transfers; a ban on use of the Kurdish language, costume, music, festivals, and names; and extreme repression of any attempt at resistance. Large revolts were suppressed in 1925, 1930, and 1938, and the repression escalated with the formation of the PKK as a national liberation party, resulting in civil war in the Kurdish region from 1984 to 1999.

Syria: Kurds make up perhaps 15 percent of the population and live mostly in the northeastern part of Syria. In 1962, after Syria was declared an Arab republic, a large number of Kurds were stripped of their citizenship and declared aliens, which made it impossible for them to get an education, jobs, or any public benefits. Their land was given to Arabs. The PYD was founded in 2003 and immediately banned; its members were jailed and murdered, and a Kurdish uprising in Qamishli was met with severe military violence by the regime. When the uprising against Bashar al Assad began as part of the Arab Spring, Kurds participated, but after 2012, when they captured Kobani from the Syrian army, they withdrew most of their energy from the war against Assad in order to set up a liberated area. For this reason, some other parts of the Syrian resistance consider them Assad’s allies. The Kurds in turn cite examples of discrimination against them within the opposition.