The Spirit of Utopia  

UTOPIAN THOUGHT IN THE WESTERN WORLD, by Frank E. Manuel and Fritzie P. Manuel. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 896 pp. $19.95. Utopia seems deader than a doornail—no better proof than the recent long academic monographs about its history. Yet, …



More News from the Gröfez  

THE NUREMBERG MIND, by Florence Miale and Michael Selzer. New York: Quadrangle Books. 303 pp. $3.95. GERMANY 1866-1945, by Gordon A. Craig. New York: Oxford University Press. 825 pp. $19.95. HITLER’S WAR AND THE GERMANS, by Marlis G. Steinert. Athens, …



Marx and the Jews  

I: Psycho-History vs. Marx Histories of socialism usually begin with the Old Testament prophets, mighty preachers against usury and “those that buy the poor for silver,” visionaries of a golden age and messengers of perpetual peace. Their god was a …



Unfair to Marx  

MAIN CURRENTS OF MARXISM, by Leszek Kolakowski. Translated from the Polish by P. S. Fall. Three volumes. Volume One: THE FOUNDERS, 434 pp. Volume Two: THE GOLDEN AGE, 542 pp. Volume Three: THE BREAKDOWN, 548 pp. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. …



Jews and Other People  

FREUD, JEWS AND OTHER GERMANS: MASTERS AND VICTIMS IN MODERNIST CULTURE, by Peter Gay. New York: Oxford University Press. 289 pp. $12.95. THE ORDEAL OF CIVILITY: FREUD, MARX, LEVI-STRAUSS, AND THE JEWISH STRUGGLE WITH MODERNITY, by John Murray Cuddihy. New York: Basic …



Freedom, Authority, Participation  

 Motto: “Learn to read and to write so that you may be relieved of labor and become an official with honor. The scribe is a master. His writing pad distinguishes him from the humble oarsman.” —An Egyptian father to his son, about …



Freedom, Authority, Participation  

Socialism: The Highest Stage of Individualism Socialism strives to abolish exploitation and inequality. It seeks a society where merit and character are the only marks of distinction; where economic resources are controlled by public agencies, themselves under public scrutiny; where …



What Do We Ask of Eurocommunism?  

A political question cannot be answered by a philosophical definition. Leszek Kolakowski has decided, to his own satisfaction, that Communists are Communists are Communists, an insight that he derives from reading their texts. For him, the criteria for their conversion …



Politics and High Finance  

Gold and Iron: Bismarck, Bleichroder, and the Building of the German Empire, by Fritz Stern. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 620 pp. In this double biography of Prince Bismarck and his banker, Columbia professor Fritz Stern paints the portrait of …



The Conspiracy of the Generals  

The History of the German Resistance 1933- 1945, by Peter Hoffmann. Cambridge: MIT Press. 846 pp. The title of this massive volume is a misnomer, and the claim of the jacket, that this is the “essential, surely final handbook on the …



Some Unorthodox Thoughts about Colleges  

I shall first offer some reflections on the social purposes of the college, then cast a critical look at the liberal and populist responses to the challenge of the mass college, and end with some ideas on higher education in …