Russian Thought  

A HISTORY OF RUSSIAN THOUGHT FROM THE ENLIGHTENMENT TO MARXISM by Andrzej Walicki. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 456 pp. $25. The forcible super-imposition of Marxism as the orthodoxy of the Soviet state obliterated, for some three generations, the spontaneity of …



Religion and Socialism  

God, it seems, Is Not Altogether Dead, even in the countries whose governments consider themselves “objectively socialist.” To be sure, Viterslav Gardaysk), the Marxist philosopher who chose this for the title of his book, found himself transferred from the post …



Big Brother, Brown Brother  

Model or Ally? The Communist Powers and the Developing Countries, by Richard Lowenthal. New York: Oxford University Press. 400 pp. Just how enlightening can even an enlightened despot be? That is the underlying question of Richard Lowenthal’s study of Communist …



Italia Sinistra: A Report from Rome  

There is nothing that can put the Italian crisis into perspective quite like a few weeks in Italy itself, riding the rickety buses, coping with the ineffectual officialdom, bringing fresh linens to neglected patients in state hospitals, eating in desperate …



European Communists & European Defense  

European Communist parties, for threescore years Stalin’s vanguard, seem to be discovering democracy. Few Americans have noticed and fewer still are willing to trust the change. With reason—and yet, if genuine, the change could mark the end of an era, …



The Devil and Leszek Kolakowski  

“Does the doctrine of original sin present a truth accessible to natural reason unaided by revelation, or a truth known from revelation alone?” Though it might sound strange in these pages, that, in his chosen idiom, is the question we …



Socialism & the Welfare State  

The welfare state represents easily the most appealing program socialists have ever offered. Its success in alleviating both the specific costs and existential anxiety of industrialization, together with its proven compatibility with liberal democracy, make it an ideal basis for …



Possessing, Owning, Belonging  

The future of socialism, I am convinced, depends more on its ability to provide a new conception of ownership than on its ability to redistribute property or secure social benefits. Those traditional aims retain importance even in a technologically mature …



Czech Socialists Find Their Way  

The conference of exiled Czechoslovak democratic socialists at the Swiss Trade Union Center in Rotschuo this past September is yet another straw in the wind, serving notice that an easing of tensions between Washington and Moscow does not resolve the …



A Superb Mind  

Collected Essays, by George Lichtheim. New York: Viking Press. 492 pp. George Lichtheim fitted ill the technological age whose coming he augured. He was, genuinely, a writer: one of the rare breed whose craft is saying forth, transforming unwieldy reality …



Possessing, Owning, Belonging  

The future of socialism, I am convinced, depends more on its ability to provide a new conception of ownership than on its ability to redistribute property or secure social benefits. Those traditional aims retain importance even in a technologically mature …



Russia: The Fire Next Time?  

On the Inner Crisis of Communist Society They’re rioting in Africa, they’re starving in Spain—as the Kingston Trio used to sing—but in Russia they’re “building socialism.” There may be occasional tremors on the fringes of Comrade Brezhnev’s “socialist commonwealth,” requiring the …