It is a banal historical truth that the working class played a crucial role in the bourgeois revolutions of continental Europe. Oskar Lange’s comments on the subject are especially perceptive:
After the war, when the remnants of the ancien regime collapsed in all the countries of Central Europe—in Germany, Austria, Hungary, in the Czech lands, and in Poland—the bourgeois democratic republics that emerged from the ruins of the Hohenzollern, Hapsburg, and Romanov monarchies were created by the labor movement. Lacking sufficient power to give the republics it had created a proletarian class character, the labor movement was unable to prevent them becoming bourgeois class states. There emerged a tragicomic situation: workers’ parties created republics that were in essence bourgeois class states....
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