From ancient Greece on down, a recurrent male fantasy, born of envy and the desire to control, has been to eliminate women from the reproductive
process altogether. Recently, rejecting the idea that biology is destiny, some feminist thinkers have also advocated reproduction ex utero (outside the womb) as a means of liberation. But now that the male-dominated reproductive technologies have broken the maternal/ fetal bond, women are afraid that the recurrent male fantasy will eventually become a female nightmare.
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