We have lost a dear friend.
Muriel Gardiner was a distinguished psychoanalyst, author of several valuable books on psychological and social themes, and the wife of Joseph Buttinger, a leader of the Austrian socialist movement during the 1930s and, for many years now, a member of the Dissent editorial board.
As a young woman, after graduating from college, Muriel Gardiner went to Vienna, to attend medical school and study there with the Freudian analysts. By 1932 Austria had been taken over by a fascist regime that was persecuting
the suppressed socialists. Muriel met and fell in love with a leader of the socialist youth, Joseph Buttinger, and then, with that quiet and calm modesty that would mark her entire life, she proceeded to help the antifascists. Adopting the code name Mary, she offered her apartment as a
safe house for the underground, arranged false passports for fleeing dissidents, and helped with money.
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