It is wrong, we increasingly hear, to give favored treatment to individuals simply because they have African ancestors. Hence, too, the argument that we no longer reserve places for persons of European descent, so it is time to remove race as a basis altogether. If race was bad as a barrier, it should not be used to justify preference.
Still, some who profess to a social conscience are offering an alternative. Instead of race, we might give special attention to all the individuals who have incurred disadvantages. For example, people who are born blind or who suffered serious abuse as children. But the principal proposal has been that affirmative attention be given to those who have endured hardships associated with low incomes....
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